Jane Brailsford

Jane Brailsford


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Jane Esdon Malloch nació el 3 de abril de 1874 en Elderslie, Renfrewshire, uno de los seis hijos de John Malloch, un fabricante de algodón escocés, y su esposa, Margaret Marion McLeod. Una niña inteligente asistió a la Universidad de Glasgow, donde estudió griego con Gilbert Murray. Ella desarrolló un afecto apasionado por Murray, pero él estaba casado con Mary Henrietta Howard, la hija de George Howard, noveno conde de Carlisle.

Según Bertrand Russell: "Ella había sido una brillante alumna de Gilbert Murray, se había enamorado de él a pesar de que estaba casado, y finalmente escribió que iría al diablo a menos que él tuviera una aventura con ella ... que el La única forma de lidiar con la situación era hacer una cosa u otra. O no debe tener nada que ver con ella o debe estar de acuerdo con su deseo ".

En 1895 se unió a la rama del Partido Laborista Independiente de la universidad. Henry Brailsford lo había establecido recientemente después de escuchar a James Keir Hardie hablar durante las elecciones generales de 1895. Otros miembros incluyeron a Norman Leys, Ronald Montague Burrows y Alexander MacCallum Scott.

Su biógrafo, FM Leventhal, ha argumentado que ella era "una mujer joven testaruda ... poseía una belleza notable, que no solo la convirtió en el centro de atención de una gran cantidad de contemporáneos de pregrado, sino que más tarde despertaría el ardor de ..." Henry Nevinson y Wilfrid Scawen Blunt.

Uno de los hombres que estaba enamorado de Jane era Henry Brailsford, su tutor de filosofía. Sus amigos le advirtieron contra ella. Alexander MacCallum Scott creía que era una neurótica que evitaría que Brailsford lograra algo en la literatura. Otra amiga dijo que "no tenía corazón y nunca amaría a nadie". En diciembre de 1896, justo cuando ella estaba a punto de irse por un año en Somerville College, él le pidió que se casara con él. Dada la forma en que lo había estado tratando, no fue una sorpresa cuando lo rechazó.

En abril de 1897 Henry Brailsford se unió a la Philhellenic Legion, una fuerza voluntaria que luchaba por los griegos en su lucha con Turquía. Sus experiencias de guerra le dieron el material para su única novela, La escoba del dios de la guerra (1898). La novela atrajo a Brailsford a la atención de C.P Scott, el editor de la Manchester Guardian, y recordando la recomendación anterior, lo reclutó para investigar la confusión en Creta.

Brailsford ahora organizó una reunión con Jane, le contó su asignación y le pidió nuevamente que se casara con él. Esta vez ella dijo que sí. Su biógrafo, F. Leventhal, ha argumentado: "Sus motivos para este cambio repentino después de haberlo rechazado durante casi dos años no son del todo explicables. Su padre había muerto en julio ... y la casa de Elderslie fue vendida, dejándola esencialmente sin hogar. ... Ahora que estaba ganando reconocimiento como corresponsal extranjero, Brailsford debió parecer una perspectiva más atractiva de lo que había sido como profesor de filosofía desempleado, especialmente para alguien tan ansioso por sacudir el polvo de Glasgow de sus pies ... repugnancia por Brailsford, es probable que su matrimonio nunca se consumara o, en cualquier caso, que fuera virtualmente asexuado ". Bertrand Russell afirmó que Jane se casó con Brailsford "en el entendimiento de que no debería haber relaciones sexuales debido a su amor por Gilbert Murray".

Se casaron en una ceremonia civil en Glasgow el 29 de septiembre de 1898, un día antes de partir hacia Creta. Jane le dijo que no usaría un anillo de bodas porque era una señal de esclavitud. Al año siguiente se convirtió en el Manchester Guardian corresponsal en París. A su regreso a Londres, Brailsford se convirtió en líder y escritor de The Morning Leader. Más tarde se convirtió en un escritor líder en el Noticias diarias. Además de contribuir a La estrella y el diario semanal, La Nación.

El matrimonio de Jane fue extremadamente infeliz. Una fuente afirmó que Jane se burló de su esposo por ser tan poco atractivo que le sorprendió que se atreviera a salir en sociedad. F. Leventhal ha argumentado: "El desprecio que sentía por su marido se debía en parte a los celos que sentía por sus dotes intelectuales y su facilidad literaria ... Jane Brailsford intentó descubrir sus propias salidas creativas, primero como novelista y luego como actriz, pero fue en vano. . No está claro si se vio obstaculizada por ser mujer o simplemente porque, a pesar de la promesa anterior, carecía de talento, sus esfuerzos por ganarse la reputación de sí misma más que como ayudante de su marido y como participante ocasional en campañas radicales demostraron abortivo."

Henry Nevinson fue uno de los muchos hombres que se enamoraron de ella. Más tarde recordó que cuando la vio por primera vez llevaba un "vestido azul, sedoso y fino, con una blusa en el cuello y la cintura, pálido, delgado ... Nunca vi nada tan parecido a una flor, tan lastimeramente hermoso y, sin embargo, tan lleno de espíritu". y poder." Hizo visitas regulares a su casa donde "ella era muy dulce, con ojos de paloma, pero llena de peligros", pero descubrió que a veces expresaba "un espíritu burlón". Jane le envió a Nevinson una nota sobre su "lucha para resistir mi propio deseo", pero le informó claramente que ella estaba a cargo de la situación: "No soy un iceberg. Soy un animal salvaje pero con un cerebro, y por eso ver lo degradante que fue para los dos ... un mero cuerpo no seré para nadie. Seguramente puede encontrar en mí algo más que una excitación física. Una vez antes un hombre me había considerado así y lo tomé como una prueba de su inferioridad ".

Un amigo afirmó que Jane era "vanidosa con su apariencia ... y estaba obsesionada por el temor de que se volviera fea con el paso de los años". Henry Nevinson dijo que "a los veintiocho años ya estaba aterrorizada por la vejez". Su cuñada recordó más tarde que "se mataría si alguna vez perdiera su belleza".

Jane Brailsford fue una gran defensora del sufragio femenino. Fue miembro de la Unión Nacional de Sociedades de Sufragio. Sin embargo, en 1906, frustrada por la falta de éxito de NUWSS, se unió a la Unión Social y Política de Mujeres (WSPU), una organización establecida por Emmeline Pankhurst y sus tres hijas, Christabel Pankhurst, Sylvia Pankhurst y Adela Pankhurst. El objetivo principal era ganar, no el sufragio universal, el voto de todas las mujeres y los hombres mayores de cierta edad, sino los votos de las mujeres, "sobre la misma base que los hombres".

En julio de 1909 Brailsford escribió a La Nación argumentando: "Nunca antes había estado en contacto con un cuerpo de personas tan completamente desinteresado como los miembros de la Unión Social y Política de Mujeres. Esta devoción absoluta a su causa, una devoción que no se detiene ante nada y no teme a nada - está actuando como un imán, atrayendo simpatizantes lenta y constantemente de todo el país. Nada puede detener este movimiento ".

Henry Brailsford no estaba de acuerdo con las tácticas militantes de la WSPU, pero creía que las mujeres deberían tener el voto y, junto con Laurence Housman, Charles Corbett, Henry Nevinson, Israel Zangwill, CE Joad, Hugh Franklin, Charles Mansell-Moullin, fue uno de los fundadores de los hombres. Liga por el sufragio femenino. Evelyn Sharp, miembro de WSPU, argumentó más tarde: "Es imposible valorar demasiado los sacrificios que ellos (Henry Nevinson y Laurence Housman) y HN Brailsford, FW Pethick Lawrence, Harold Laski, Israel Zangwill, Gerald Gould, George Lansbury y muchos otros hecho para mantener nuestro movimiento libre de la sugerencia de una guerra sexual ".

Brailsford se unió a un grupo de sufragistas, incluidas Constance Lytton y Emily Wilding Davison, que resolvieron emprender actos de violencia para protestar contra la alimentación forzada. El 9 de noviembre de 1909 fue detenida en Newcastle tras atacar una barricada con un hacha. Fue enviada a prisión durante 30 días. Después de participar en otra manifestación el 21 de noviembre de 1911, fue condenada a siete días en la prisión de Holloway. Su amigo, Henry Nevinson, escribió cartas al Ministerio del Interior y un artículo en The English Review, eso aseguró que no la alimentaran a la fuerza y ​​la liberaran después de tres días.

El verano de 1913 vio una nueva escalada de violencia de WSPU. En julio, las sufragistas intentaron incendiar las casas de dos miembros del gobierno que se oponían al voto de las mujeres. Estos intentos fracasaron, pero poco después, las sufragistas dañaron gravemente una casa que se estaba construyendo para David Lloyd George, el ministro de Hacienda. A esto le siguió el incendio de pabellones de cricket, gradas de hipódromos y casas club de golf.

Algunos líderes de la WSPU, como Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, no estuvieron de acuerdo con esta campaña de incendios provocados. Cuando Pethick-Lawrence se opuso, fue expulsada de la organización. Brailsford se unió a Elizabeth Robins, Mary Blathwayt y Louisa Garrett Anderson para mostrar su desaprobación al dejar de participar activamente en la WSPU.

El 4 de mayo de 1913, los Brailsfords acordaron separarse. Jane Brailsford, quien se mudó a un piso en Warwick Crescent, le dijo a Henry Nevinson que "hay otra mujer más amada", pero esta historia no le convenció. Brailsford la visitaba con regularidad y, según Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, le dijo: "Ha logrado poco y disfrutado poco y no tendrá nada que sobrevivirá después de él. Su matrimonio ha resultado un fracaso y no tiene hijos".

La pareja volvió a estar juntos en 1914. No estaban de acuerdo sobre la Primera Guerra Mundial ya que él era miembro de la Unión de Control Democrático, mientras que ella era una partidaria patriótica del esfuerzo bélico. Nevinson la conoció en abril de 1915. Él anotó en su diario: "La Sra. Brailsford me recibió en el Green: se ha vuelto muy corpulenta y deliberadamente grosera y desagradable en sus modales. Probablemente es infeliz en todos los aspectos, diferenciándose de su esposo en todos los puntos. - paz y guerra, etc. Ella piensa que Alemania debe vengarse por las supuestas atrocidades y apoya la política aplastante. Él está en términos fáciles para evitar futuras venganzas ".

Clifford Allen conoció a Jane Brailsford por primera vez en 1919: "Está emocionada y nerviosa, ansiosa por hablar mucho y rápidamente para evitar pausas de observación; a menudo brilla de una manera horriblemente brillante, y luego parece casi loca y secretamente taciturna . No pude distinguir qué papel jugó el sexo en su composición; podría haberlo hecho con tanta fuerza en el pasado, pero no lo hizo ahora. Su relación con Brailsford parecía asombrosa y maliciosa o totalmente impersonal ... Ella era como una figura encantada de alguna novela extranjera ... Estoy convencido de que hay muchas posibilidades de que esta mujer se vuelva loca, cuando toda la tragedia de su vida de repente se le ocurra y luego podría matar a Brailsford ".

Henry Brailsford dejó a su esposa por última vez en 1921. Su biógrafo, F. Leventhal, ha argumentado que: "Ella (Jane Brailsford) más tarde sufrió una depresión severa y un colapso físico, posiblemente precipitando la bebida incontrolada que la arruinó años posteriores. El matrimonio como forma de subyugación, nunca ocultó su repugnancia por su marido, a quien trataba con desprecio. Ante su insistencia no tuvieron hijos ... En 1921 se separaron definitivamente, aunque ella se negó a aceptar el divorcio. a finales de la década de 1920, Jane Brailsford, incapacitada por el alcoholismo, vivía sola en Kew, Londres ".

Jane Brailsford murió de cirrosis hepática el 9 de abril de 1937 en 385 High Road, Chiswick.

Nunca antes había estado en contacto con un grupo de personas tan completamente desinteresado como los miembros de la Unión Social y Política de Mujeres. Nada puede detener este movimiento.

Los magistrados me declararon culpable de "conducta desordenada con intención de perturbar el orden" y me ataron con la suma de cincuenta libras y dos fianzas de veinticinco libras cada una, que se aplicarán durante doce meses; en defecto, prisión de una boca en la segunda división. Yo, por supuesto, no tuve la opción de encontrar garantías durante doce meses, y fui condenado a un mes de prisión. Mi compañera, la señorita Davison, fue despedida, ya que literalmente no había hecho nada.

A la señora Brailsford, que había golpeado la barricada con un hacha, también se le dio la opción de ser atada, lo que, por supuesto, rechazó, con la alternativa de un mes de prisión en la segunda división.

Nos pusieron de nuevo en una furgoneta, pero sólo nos quedaba un corto trayecto en coche. Nos llevaron a un pasaje de la prisión donde el gobernador vino y nos habló. Fue muy cortés y nos rogó que no hiciéramos huelga de hambre. Luego llegó la matrona, una mujer encantadora y muy refinada, que caminaba con un bastón, siendo coja. La señorita Davison había encabezado nuestra manita de doce; cuando la despidieron, la señorita Dorothy Pethick, la hermana menor de la señora Pethick-Lawrence, era nuestra jefa y hablaba por nosotros. Su rostro tenía toda la belleza que la frescura, la juventud y la gracia pueden darle y, con todo, para su edad (tenía veintisiete años)

fue una fuerza maravillosa al respecto. Habló cortésmente con el gobernador, pero con mucha determinación. No pudo hacer más por nosotros ... Finalmente, la Sra. Brailsford y yo fuimos llevados a diferentes celdas en la planta baja, donde nos separaron completamente de los demás.

La segunda mañana, miércoles 13 de octubre, cuando llegaron los médicos, me paré en la esquina de mi celda con los brazos cruzados y los dedos atrapados en las fosas nasales y la boca. Era la mejor posición que conocía para que no pudieran alimentarme por la nariz o la boca sin tener primero una lucha considerable. Vinieron, y después que vi que no tenían tubo salí de mi rincón y dejé que ambos miraran mi corazón. Golpearon, cada uno de ellos por turno, y también me tomaron el pulso. Luego parecieron estar de acuerdo y salieron. Les dije: "Parecían desconcertados por mi corazón; puedo contárselo si lo desea". Pero habían tomado una decisión sobre algo y no querían ninguna ayuda de mi parte.

Entró una guardiana y anunció que estaba en libertad, ¡por el estado de mi corazón! Aunque esto fue bastante evidente por la visita del médico externo, no me había dado cuenta. Recogí mis cosas y salí. Llamé a la señora Brailsford; ella también fue liberada.

La Sra. He es para términos fáciles para evitar futuras venganzas.

Ella (Jane Brailsford) está emocionada y nerviosa, ansiosa por hablar mucho y rápidamente para evitar pausas de observación; a menudo brilla de una manera horriblemente brillante, y luego parece casi loca y secretamente taciturna. Estoy convencido de que hay muchas posibilidades de que esta mujer se vuelva loca, cuando toda la tragedia de su vida se le ocurra de repente y entonces ella podría matar a Brailsford ".


Henry Noel Brailsford (25 de diciembre de 1873 y 23 de marzo de 1958) fue el periodista de izquierda británico más prolífico de la primera mitad del siglo XX.

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Los padres y abuelos de Columbine

Mi agradecimiento a Karen Haseldine, que está casada con un sobrino bisnieto de Adeline Wells (de soltera Columbine), por su ayuda y consejos para compilar esta sección.

Esta página se concentra en los abuelos de Adeline, James y Ann Columbine, y luego en sus padres, John y Elizabeth Columbine.

James y Ann Columbine.

Adeline escribe & # 8230 & # 8230. Mi abuelo paterno, que vivía en Mansfield, tenía dos habitaciones llenas de calcetines y contrataba a un hombre para cada cuadro. Llevaba el trabajo todas las semanas a una empresa de Nottingham y, desde luego, se ganaba la vida muy bien, pero no puedo decir si sus hombres hicieron lo mismo.

El abuelo paterno de Adeline fue el tejedor James Columbine, quien se casó con Ann Goodall en la iglesia parroquial de Mansfield Woodhouse el 7 de diciembre de 1812.

Su hijo John nació en Mansfield el 15 de julio de 1823 y se bautizó en la Capilla Metodista Wesleyana allí el 11 de agosto de 1823.

En el 1832 White’s History, Gazetteer and Directory of Nottinghamshire, James recibe una mención como tejedor marco de "Ratcliffgate" en Mansfield y está en el mismo Directorio de 1844 en la misma dirección.

James y Ann Columbine continuaron viviendo en Mansfield con su hija Ann, quien se casó en 1850 con Smith y el más en forma Andrew Valance.

Ann Columbine murió en diciembre de 1864, a los 72 años, y su esposo James en 1881, a los 85 años.

John y Elizabeth Columbine

El 20 de febrero de 1849, y aún viviendo en Ratcliffe Gate, John Columbine se casó con Elizabeth Wells en la iglesia parroquial de San Pedro, Mansfield, donde su esposa había sido bautizada. También era nativa de Mansfield, hija del cortador de piedra Solomon y Jane (de soltera Brailsford).

En 1851, la pareja vivía en Back Lane East en Mansfield, con su hijo pequeño, Samuel Webster Columbine, quien murió ese año, justo antes de que la familia se mudara a Ilkeston. Webster era un apellido, siendo el apellido de soltera de la abuela materna de John y, como Brailsford, se usaba con bastante frecuencia dentro de la familia Columbine.

Incluso antes de la mudanza de Mansfield, John tenía conexiones con Ilkeston.
A menudo visitaba la ciudad como predicador durante el día en la capilla Wesleyan Old Cricket Ground en South Street, y pasaba la noche en la casa de Samuel Carrier en East Street, casi frente a Wine Vaults.
Después de la mudanza de Mansfield, John y Elizabeth tuvieron varios hijos, todos nacidos en Ilkeston….

John junior, nacido el 22 de febrero de 1852.

Elizabeth Adeline, nacido el 2 de octubre de 1854.

Lucy Eleanor, nacido el 13 de enero de 1857. (fallecido el 6 de julio de 1858, de escarlatina).

William Brailsford, nacido el 24 de abril de 1859.

Martin Webster, nacido el 21 de mayo de 1861.

Jabes, nacido el 24 de agosto de 1863 (fallecido el 4 de mayo de 1865).

Durante este tiempo, John senior fue descrito de diversas maneras como contable, gerente o empleado de una fábrica de encajes al igual que encajera. A mediados de la década de 1850 y todavía en East Street, también anunciaba sus servicios como agente de William y Henry Sills, albañiles y constructores de White Bear Lane en Mansfield, una empresa que ofrecía "El mejor Mansfield Stone en términos razonables".

Esta es la familia en 1861 en Carrier's Buildings en Queens Terrace, al lado de South Street.

Diez años más tarde, la familia estaba en el número 7 de Queen's Street, ahora se unía la suegra de John, Jane Wells.

El trabajo de John requirió mudarse a Nottingham y hace su primera aparición en el registro electoral allí para el período que comienza el 31 de octubre de 1880, en 10 Ossington Villas en North Sherwood Street.

El censo de 1881 muestra a la familia en 10 Ossington Villas.

Aunque John padre había dejado Ilkeston, todavía tenía propiedades allí y en mayo de 1883 trató de vender sus seis casas en Chapel St East (Lower Chapel Street). Fueron puestos a subasta, pero se retiraron cuando la oferta no superó las 800 libras esterlinas. En ese momento se describió que ocupaban 1108 yardas cuadradas de tierra, lo que generaba ingresos por alquiler anuales de £ 70.
Y en el momento de su muerte en 1906 todavía no los había vendido. (ver su testamento a continuación)
En la misma subasta, John junior también trató de vender cinco casas en la misma calle & # 8212 764 yardas cuadradas y £ 58 10s ingresos anuales por alquiler & # 8212 pero con el mismo resultado. Ellos también fueron retirados ... la oferta no superó las £ 710.

John senior permaneció en el censo electoral en la misma dirección hasta 1889 y luego regresó a Ilkeston para vivir en 6 Albert Street con su esposa Elizabeth.

El 25 de febrero de 1899 apareció lo siguiente en la columna de matrimonios del Nottinghamshire Guardian & # 8212

“COLUMBINE - POZOS - Bodas de oro. El 20 de febrero de 1849, en la iglesia de San Pedro, Mansfield, Notts., John Columbine a Elizabeth Wells, ambos de Mansfield, que ahora residen en Albert-street, Ilkeston ”.

John murió en su casa de Albert Street el 3 de marzo de 1906, a los 82 años. Su muerte fue registrada por su hijo Martin, que entonces vivía en Dale Street.
Fue enterrado en el cementerio general de Nottingham el 6 de marzo de 1906, en la tumba 15749A.
Elizabeth Columbine murió en la casa familiar el 13 de mayo de 1914, a la edad de 91 años. Fue enterrada con John en la misma tumba del Cementerio General.
(El primer entierro en esta trama fue el de su nieta Winifred Adeline Wells en 1890 & # 8230 ver más abajo)

Una copia del testamento de John Columbine, 1 de abril de 1904. ( Karen )

Yo, John Columbine, del número 6, Albert Street, Ilkeston en el condado de Derby, por la presente revoco todos los testamentos e instrumentos testamentarios que he hecho hasta ahora y declaro que este es mi último testamento. Designo a mis dos hijos, John Columbine y William Brailsford Columbine, ambos de la Ciudad de Nottingham, (en adelante denominados mis Fideicomisarios) para ser los Ejecutores y Fideicomisarios de este mi Testamento.

Doy a mis Fideicomisarios todos mis bienes, que constan de dos casas de propiedad absoluta, con sus anexos ubicadas y siendo los números 6 y 7 Albert Street, Ilkeston antes mencionado y seis casas de propiedad absoluta y los accesorios a las mismas ubicadas y siendo 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 y 38 Chapel Street, Ilkeston antes mencionado. Con la confianza de recibir las rentas e ingresos de las mismas y con y de dichas rentas e ingresos para pagar todos mis gastos y deudas funerarias y testamentarias y los intereses adeudados y vencidos sobre cualquier hipoteca existente sobre mis dichas propiedades en el momento de mi fallecimiento. . Y pagar todos los gastos necesarios para mantener dicha propiedad en reparación y apta para ser habitada y después de los pagos mencionados anteriormente para pagar el residuo de dichos alquileres e ingresos a mi esposa Elizabeth durante su vida.

Y ordeno a mis fideicomisarios que permitan a mi esposa Elizabeth, durante su vida, el uso de los muebles y efectos de mi hogar en y alrededor de mi residencia en el momento de mi fallecimiento. E inmediatamente después de la muerte de mi esposa Elizabeth, ordeno a mis Fideicomisarios que vendan la totalidad de mi propiedad antes mencionada y los muebles y efectos domésticos mencionados y con y con el producto de la venta para pagar la hipoteca que tenía antes. mencionó seis casas en Chapel Street, Ilkeston antes mencionadas por el abogado del Sr.H Thorpe Market Street Ilkeston y también para pagar el sobregiro de cien libras esterlinas (£ 100) e intereses sobre las mismas, que tenía la firma de J & amp C Columbine of Albert Street, Ilkeston antes mencionado del Nottingham Joint Stock Bank Limited de Ilkeston, bajo la garantía de las escrituras de mis dos casas en Albert Street, Ilkeston antes mencionado.

Y en caso de que el sobregiro y los intereses antes mencionados equivalgan a un cuarto o más de un cuarto del producto de la venta de mi propiedad, entonces ordeno a mis Fideicomisarios que paguen el resto del producto de la venta de mi propiedad a mis dos hijos los dichos John columbine y William Brailsford Columbine y mi hija Elizabeth Adeline Wells, la esposa de William Alfred Wells, del número 34 de St Johns Mill Road, Eastbourne en partes iguales. Pero en caso de que el sobregiro e intereses antes mencionados asciendan a menos de una cuarta parte de los ingresos de la venta de mi propiedad, entonces ordeno a mis fideicomisarios que paguen la diferencia entre el monto del sobregiro e intereses antes mencionados y el monto de uno. la cuarta parte del producto de la venta de mi propiedad a mi hijo Martin Webster Columbine del número 4 de Stanley Street, Ilkeston antes mencionado en cuotas quincenales de dos libras esterlinas (£ 2).

Y ordeno a mis Fideicomisarios que paguen el resto de las ganancias de la venta de mi propiedad a mis dos hijos, el mencionado John Columbine y William Brailsford Columbine, y mi hija, la mencionada Elizabeth Adeline Wells, en partes iguales Y en caso de la muerte de cualquiera de los Mis dichos cuatro hijos, antes de la ejecución de este mi Testamento, la parte del difunto pertenecerá a la parte legítima de la emisión del difunto y la parte igual. En fe de lo cual, he puesto mi mano en este mi Testamento, este día primero de abril de mil novecientos cuatro.

Firmado por dicho John Columbine, el Testador, como y para su última voluntad y testamento, en presencia de los dos presentes al mismo tiempo, que en su presencia a petición suya y en presencia de los demás hemos suscrito nuestros nombres. como testigos.

Walter Watson White, 17, Burns Street, Ilkeston. Gerente de la fábrica
Edward Ambrose Henshaw 8, Graham Street, Ilkeston. Empleado de calcetería
El día 12 de marzo de 1909, se otorgó la sucesión de este testamento en Derby a John Columbine y William Brailsford Columbine, los albaceas.

Elizabeth Adeline Wells fue la segunda hija sobreviviente de la familia y se pueden encontrar más detalles sobre ella en la página siguiente.

El tío James Columbine y su familia.

James Columbine junior, el hermano mayor de John, nació alrededor de 1820 en Mansfield.

Se casó con Sarah Percival, (¿la hija ilegítima de Elizabeth?) En Mansfield Unitarian Chapel en 1846.

Al igual que su padre, James junior era un tejedor de estructuras y continuó viviendo en Ratcliffe Gate, Mansfield después de su matrimonio.

Varios de sus hijos nacieron allí hasta que la familia se mudó a Ilkeston a mediados de la década de 1850, donde nació su hija Sarah en noviembre de 1857. Le siguieron Rebecca (1860), Herbert (1862), Martha (1865) y Eliza Ann ( 1866). Había al menos nueve niños en la familia.

Sábado, 29 de junio de 1878, en la casa de Columbine en Awsworth Road & # 8230 y poco después de las 3 en punto & # 8217 de la mañana James se despertó & # 8230 (¿era su hija gritándole ??) & # 8230 para encontrar que su esposa no estaba en el dormitorio.
Estaba muy inquieto.
En el pasado reciente, Sarah había sido alojada temporalmente dos veces como paciente en el Asilo de Lunáticos de Mickleover. Y en las últimas semanas su mente había estado muy perturbada.
James se vistió y bajó corriendo las escaleras. Una búsqueda rápida alrededor de la casa no reveló nada antes de que James saliera por la parte de atrás y viera que habían quitado la tapa de piedra que cubría la cisterna de agua blanda. Cuando la encajera se acercó a ella, vio el cuerpo de Sarah, vestida solo con una falda y una camisola, tirada en el agua, boca abajo, bastante muerta.
En la investigación realizada en el Commercial Inn en Awsworth Road el mismo día, se reveló que Sarah había amenazado previamente con ahogarse.
El jurado de la investigación emitió un veredicto de & # 8216 encontrado ahogado en una cisterna de agua ... locura temporal & # 8217.
Sarah tenía 56 años.
El incidente se informó en el Pioneer, así como en varios otros periódicos locales (Derby Mercury y Nottinghamshire Guardian, por ejemplo) y más allá.

James continuó viviendo en Ilkeston y murió en 36 Abbey Street el 15 de febrero de 1894, a la edad de 73 años.
En ese momento vivía con su hija Sarah y su familia. Se había casado en mayo de 1875 con el minero de carbón de Ilkeston, John Stevenson, hijo mayor del minero Joseph y Sarah (de soltera Scattergood).
Otra de sus hijas & # 8212 Mary Columbine & # 8212 se casó con George Wake Beardsley el día de Navidad de 1874. Era el hijo ilegítimo de John Wombell, impresor y editor del Ilkeston Pioneer, y Maria Beardsley.


Hoy en Londres & # 8217s historia radical: el intento de las sufragistas de quemar el elegante Dulwich College fracasa, 1913.

& # 8220Dulwich College, la famosa escuela en el suburbio del sur de Londres, fue incendiada en dos lugares a una hora temprana esta mañana, y literatura sufragista clavada en árboles en el vecindario con mujeres & # 8217s hatpins se acepta como prueba de que un militante sufragista & # 8220arson squad & # 8221 fue responsable del crimen. & # 8221

En 1912-13, la campaña militante por el sufragio femenino se aceleró.

Década de agitación legal, varios años de escalada de acción directa, acoso de políticos, rotura de ventanas y huelgas de hambre en la cárcel que no lograron cambiar el peso del establecimiento masculino, el liderazgo dominado por Pankhurst de la Unión Social y Política de Mujeres se preparó para cambiar al incendio provocado.

En julio de 1912, Christabel Pankhurst comenzó a organizar una campaña secreta de incendios provocados. Las sufragistas intentaron incendiar las casas de dos miembros del gobierno que se oponían al voto de las mujeres. Estos intentos fracasaron, pero poco después, las sufragistas dañaron gravemente una casa que se estaba construyendo para David Lloyd George, el ministro de Hacienda.

Uno de los primeros pirómanos fue Mary Richardson. Más tarde recordó la primera vez que prendió fuego a un edificio: & # 8220 Le quité las cosas y me fui a la mansión. La masilla de una de las ventanas de la planta baja era vieja y se rompía fácilmente, y pronto había roto un gran panel de vidrio. Cuando entré en la oscuridad fue un momento horrible. El lugar era terriblemente extraño y oscuro como boca de lobo, olía a humedad y descomposición. Un miedo espantoso se apoderó de mí y, cuando mi cara se secó contra una telaraña, me quedé momentáneamente rígido de miedo. Pero sabía cómo encender un fuego & # 8211 había construido muchas fogatas en mi juventud, y esa parte del trabajo era simple y rápido. Vertí el líquido inflamable sobre todo y luego hice una larga mecha de algodón retorcido, empapándolo también mientras lo desenrollaba y lentamente regresaba a la ventana por la que había entrado. & # 8221

Algunos líderes de la WSPU, como Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, no estuvieron de acuerdo con esta campaña de incendios provocados. Cuando Pethick-Lawrence se opuso, fue expulsada de la organización. Otras como Elizabeth Robins, Jane Brailsford, Laura Ainsworth, Eveline Haverfield y Louisa Garrett Anderson mostraron su desaprobación al dejar de ser activas en la WSPU y Hertha Ayrton, Lilias Ashworth Hallett, Janie Allan y Elizabeth Garrett Anderson dejaron de proporcionar fondos muy necesarios para la organización. . Sylvia Pankhurst también hizo su ruptura final con la WSPU y concentró sus esfuerzos en ayudar al Partido Laborista a acumular su apoyo en Londres.

En 1913, la campaña de incendios provocados por la WSPU se intensificó y las estaciones de tren, los pabellones de cricket, las gradas de los hipódromos y las casas club de golf se incendiaron. Los lemas a favor del sufragio femenino y # 8217 fueron cortados y quemados en el césped. Las sufragistas también cortaron cables telefónicos y destruyeron cartas vertiendo productos químicos en buzones de correo. Las mujeres responsables a menudo eran capturadas y una vez en prisión se declaraban en huelga de hambre.

Este es el contexto para el intento de incendiar el Dulwich College el 5 de septiembre de 1913 & # 8230 por el cual nadie fue arrestado ni condenado.

Is it possible there was a South London suffragette arson squad active in 1913…? St Catherine’s Church on Telegraph Hill, New Cross, had been set on fire in May – there were widespread rumours this was also a suffragette job, though nothing was ever proved. Before that Lilian Lenton and Olive Wharry had been arrested and convicted of setting fire to the tea gardens at Kew gardens in February 1913.

Founded in 1618 by actor (and Bankside brothel-owner) Edward Alleyn, Dulwich College is an independent school, which costs £6300 a term or £12-13,000 a term for boarders… If originally founded “to educate 12 poor scholars as the foundation of God’s Gift”, over the centuries it became one of the poshest schools in the London area. It provided a hefty contingent of students to scab during the 1926 General Strike…

It’s now the biggest independent school in the country, which selects boys from the brightest 20 per cent and spends almost £8,000 a year on each pupil. Dulwich College ensures that 95 per cent of its pupils get A-C passes at GCSE and sends 95 per cent of sixth-formers to top universities – 12 or so pupils go to Oxbridge each year.

It’s the preserve of the rich. Compared to local comprehensives it commands massive resources giving the rich kids who attend a leg up to maintaining the class system for another generation. It is funded by the Dulwich Estate, which owns a huge swathe of property over this part of South London, has massive playing fields and top class facilities, but luckily is a charity so avoids a lot of tax. The estate funds Dulwich College, Alleyn’s and James Allen’s Girls’ (or JAGS), which shared £5,815,840 of moneys from the Estate in the most recent year for which there are figures (to March 31, 2015). These are also registered charities.

Earlier this year a few hundred people gathered in Herne Hill, to demonstrate against the behaviour of the Dulwich Estate. The Estate owns 1,500 prime acres of Dulwich and the surrounding area, including the freeholds on 600 flats and maisonettes and the vast majority of the shops and pubs as well as local amenities. The focus of the demo was the closure of a much-loved toy shop, Just Williams, forced out of business by a 70% rent rise combined with a more general concern about the threat of similar rent rises forcing out other shops. They are likely to be replaced by ones which, to pay those increased rents, and will be prohibitively expensive to shop in. The Estate has also proposed selling off a piece of land used as a play area by children at the local Judith Kerr Primary school for flats, and left a popular pub, the Half Moon, closed and empty for over two years. Now that they finally have a proposal for the pub they seem set to accept, it does not include a live music room, which has been a part of it for decades and which locals want re-instated.

Maybe we don’t burn it down… but we should definitely take it over… So much that could be cone to share out the resources a bit…


Jane Brailsford - History


THOMAS BOULTBEE, RECTOR OF BRAILSFORD 1689 - 1780
This portrait was done when Thomas was aged 85.

The Rector of Brailsford lost his wife in 1750, and on a slab within the Communion rails he placed this inscription over her remains:-

On the 11th of March in the same year, the Rector's venerable father had breathed his last. Scarcely could he have seen the earth closed over those remains in Breedon Church when on 19th of the same month his wife was called away. It must not be put down to the poverty of his invention but rather to the affection which recognized kindred excellence in the two best loved women, that he inscribed in that sad year on his mother's and on his wife's graves the same high eulogium. In plain English he wrote on the slab at Breedon over Mary his mother In piety and virtue inferior to none whereas at Brailsford in more dignified Latin he recorded of Lucy the Rector's wife Pietate et virtute nulli secunda. The Rector survived his wife many years and the inscription on a small slab near that which marks her grave will tell the remainder of the tale. [The Rector's memorial below is incorrect in stating that he was Rector for 63 years. It was 66 years -- see also our note above -- Thomas was Rector from 1714 until his death in 1780 at Stordon Grange on the 27th of October . It appears that wrong information was given for the preparation of this inscription. Ed.]

Sacred to the memory
of the Rev Mr
Thomas Boultbee A.M.
Rector of this Parish
63 años
He died the 29th day of
October Anno Dom 1780
In the 92nd year of his age
Editorial Note:

The particular purpose here is to set out the full record of what is now known about the Rector of Brailsford's children, as opposed to what TPB wrote about them which, as we found, is incomplete. However, before we enlarge on this, since this editorial note contains the first reference in the new History to Bishops' Transcripts which are here of crucial value, some explanation of what they are is appropriate.
In 1538, during the reign of King Henry VIII and at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, parochial clergy were thereafter, by law, required to keep a register of all baptisms, marriages and deaths in their parish, although many surviving such registers were not actually started until long after that date. Beginning in 1598, copies were required to be sent by the incumbent to his Bishop, and these became known as Bishops' Transcripts. Nowadays they can be a valuable source of information where original registers have been lost, destroyed by enemy action 1939-1945, or damaged and illegible for some other reason such as storage in damp conditions. The Transcripts only record, however, what they were sent from parishes -- a less than conscientious parish priest may not always have passed on his records regularly, or a new incumbent may not have realised there were gaps. Consequently the Transcripts do not always constitute a correct and continuous alternative record.
Editorial perusal of the Brailsford Transcripts has revealed that Thomas and Lucy had ten children, three sons and seven daughters, whereas TPB only noted two sons and four daughters. (It has also become clear that the parents' marriage was earlier than had been previously thought by family historians. While we do not, as yet, know where it took place, it must have been in 1714 when Thomas, as he says above , first came to Brailsford.)
The Editors have felt that they should at least attempt an explanation of how and why TPB's record of the Rector's children was incomplete to the extent it was, although we have generally been reluctant to put forward speculations and surmises in the new History unless we thought them reasonable and likely. How far some of what follows may be accepted as such we leave our readers to decide for themselves.
Before we properly begin our explanation we set out below a table of the Rector's children as now known, indicating with an asterisk those whom TPB did not mention.


It seems certain that TPB had consulted neither the Brailsford Church Register nor the relevant Bishops' Transcripts, though he must have visited Brailsford Church at least once when he copied down the memorial inscriptions to the Rector, his wife, and the daughters Elizabeth and Martha. We think a partial answer to the problem of his omission of four children lies in his remark, see above, that The Rector was well remembered by his grandchildren living far on into the present century. While all of them would have remembered him in their youth, nevertheless three were dead before TPB was even born (1818) and only three granddaughters can be regarded as living well into the 19th century -- Mary and Jane who both died in 1840, and Frances who died in 1845. The grandson Joseph, though he died in 1821, knew his aunt Martha well enough to be appointed executor of her Will. Jane, after her mother's death in 1789, was taken under Martha's wing. She -- Jane -- was Joseph's favourite sister and was later close to her nephew Thomas, who was Joseph's son and TPB's father.
It seems to us most likely that the, albeit as it turned out very incomplete, chain of recollection going back to the Rector's children, went from Martha to the grandchildren Joseph and Jane and from them -- probably mostly from Jane -- to TPB's father. While TPB, as a young man, must have had a general idea of his own family's descent from the Rector, we also think he did not begin to be seriously interested until he started working on the History, and at that time his principal source of information was his father. By then, in the early 1860's, Martha had been dead for more than 50 years, Joseph for forty, and Jane for twenty. TPB, in good faith, wrote down what he had been told with no reason to suppose that it was not the whole story.
If we may consider Martha as an early conduit of information, we can easily accept that the very existence of her infant sister Lucy could have been forgotten, with her birth 20 years before that of Martha. The daughters Mary and Anna Maria pose more of a problem, their birth dates also only being known from the Transcripts not from TPB, and therefore apparently not having been passed on. There is the possibility that they both married very young, Mary before Martha was born, and moved away some distance, losing contact with the family. TPB did know the birth date of Sarah and the death date of Frances but no more. Sarah we now know did marry, and possibly also Frances -- the latter's early death when Martha was then only ten years old -- may have contributed to lack of knowledge of her. It seems significant to us that Elizabeth was the only daughter to have had a memorial to her in the Church during her father's lifetime.
The problems arising from little being known about four of the daughters are difficult enough, but an even more perplexing question now confronts us. How was it that TPB apparently did not know that the Rector had a son named Joseph and knew no more of the brother John than his birth date, and did his father Thomas really know nothing of them either? On the face of it, this would seem to be very unlikely, but we have been forced to the conclusion that it was so. TPB's father Thomas was not born until 1793, and as a young boy was living with his parents on a farm at Bunny Nottinghamshire, and his aunt Jane at Bunny Park, seat of her husband, Sir Thomas Parkyns. When hardly more than a schoolboy, Thomas was sent away to Liverpool in 1807 to make his fortune, according to JB, remaining far away in the North for many years. We have mentioned above that he was close to his aunt Jane (see page ) and the period when this was happening must have been before he went to Liverpool. Memories, sixty years or so later, of what she may have chosen to tell him of family history may be excused if they were not complete.
However, it is our opinion that all future mention of Joseph in the Rector's family was discouraged, perhaps even forbidden, at an early date around 1747, even his sister Martha later suppressing what she must have known, or if she did speak about him to her nephew and niece, Joseph and Jane, insisting that it went no further. We think that a serious upheaval did happen in the Rector's family and that it concerned Joseph, otherwise it is impossible to believe that all memory of him in the family should have been obliterated, and that his existence would not have been known to the Rector's grandchildren.
The foregoing is our general explanation of TPB's omissions of four of the Rector's children. More detailed comments specific to Joseph and John will be found in our notes which follow. These include all that TPB wrote and our editorial additions.

The Rector's children were:-

  1. María born in 1715. See above for further notes.
  2. Lucy born and died in 1717. She only lived two weeks.
  3. Frances, TPB said of her - of another daughter Frances nothing is known but her death in 1747 . The Transcripts give her birth date of 1720. See above for further notes.
  4. Anna Maria omitted by TPB. See above for further notes.
  5. Thomas -- All that we have from TPB about sons is -- The Rector of Brailsford had two sons, Thomas and John, born respectively in 1724 and 1731. It had long been decided that Thomas was to inherit the tenancy of Stordon Grange and he is the subject of TPB's Chapter VI. For John, see below.
  6. José -- Some while before his appearance in the Bishops' Transcripts, we had become aware of his existence, hitherto unknown, which we also owe to Dennis Heathcote. His researches showed that Joseph had been born in 1726 and had matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford (his father's old College) in 1746, having gone there from Repton School. The records of both College and School give him as son of Thomas Boultbee of Brailsford, Clerk ("in Holy Orders" is inferred). Joseph married Anna Maria Burgin on August 15, 1747 and had at least two children, William y Dorothy Burgin. Anna Maria was born in 1724 and died in 1798. Later he was farming at Worthington, a village very near Stordon Grange. Joseph died in 1785, and these are the facts of his life as we know them at present.
    He received a good school education followed by University. As Thomas, his elder brother, was to take over Stordon Grange, our surmise is that Joseph was expected and wished by his father to take Holy Orders, University education being the usual preliminary to entering the Church. However, we further surmise that either he rebelled against the parental wish, or made a marriage very soon after leaving Oxford, and at an age much younger than would have been normal, which was not approved of by his father. Perhaps a combination of these two factors led to Joseph becoming a kind of family non-person, in disgrace and not to be even mentioned in the family circle, eventually being provided with a farm where he could be under the eye of brother Thomas. Defiance of parental wishes and authority, even for grown-up children, was no light matter in that age. Is it too fanciful to see in the portrait of the Rector that strong face implacably set against Joseph?
  7. Sarah -- All that we know from TPB is -- born 1729 of whom nothing further is known. We now know that she married John Turner in 1749, when aged twenty.
  8. John -- We think that the lack of knowledge about John other than his birth date, which TPB gives us, and which would have been passed on through Martha, actually has a simple explanation which we put forward with some confidence.
    Where sons were concerned in an 18th century family considered to be gentry, the English custom of primogeniture operated, whereby the eldest son inherited the family property and land. Where there were several sons, the next in age generally entered the Church or armed forces and younger sons were expected to make their own way or they were often apprenticed to a trade. In the Brailsford family we see Thomas inheriting Stordon Grange, and Joseph, as we have postulated, was originally destined for the Church. There is no record of either Thomas or John having been to Repton School, and they would have received their education from their father. It is unlikely that the Rector's finances would have run to putting all his sons through University in any case. Our conclusion is that John left home as a young man to make his way as a matter of course, though we do not know what career he adopted. However, recent research has turned up the intriguing possibility that he settled in Lancashire, married twice and had several children if he and the John hereunder are one and the same person.


Universal Manhood Suffrage

Thursday 26 April 2018, 14:00

Suffrage 100 – Suffragettes in trousers: male support for women’s suffrage in Britain

On 6 February 2018, celebrations were held across Britain to commemorate the centenary of the 1918 Representation of the People Act, which gave some women the right to vote for the first time. While this was pivotal for women’s suffrage, it was also an important milestone for men’s suffrage. Prior to the Act, property qualifications had been used to control the electorate, excluding most working-class men from voting. Despite attempts to satisfy concerns of democratic inequality, the Reform Acts of the 19th century continued to avoid universal manhood suffrage. The fourth and final Reform Act of 1918 was the first time male suffrage was achieved.

The British electoral system of the early 19th century was viewed as extremely unfair and in need of reform. In 1831, only 4,500 men could vote in parliamentary elections, out of a population of more than 2.6 million people. There were also concerns about parliamentary representation, as there were rotten boroughs, such as Dunwich in Suffolk, who could elect two MPs when they only had a population of 32 in 1831. In contrast, large cities, which had expanded over the previous century, including Manchester and Birmingham, had no MP. With increased pressure for electoral reform, parliament inevitably had to make changes.

The Great Reform Act of 1832 was a response to increasing criticism of the electoral system. Government began to fear that, if reform did not take place, then a revolution would ensue, as it had in France in July 1830. For example, a petition from the people of South Shields requested reform as they felt they deserved a right to vote and wanted more parliamentary representation. 1

The petition was created by ‘merchants, manufactures, shipowners and other inhabitants of the town’, but these groups would continue to be excluded from voting even following the 1832 Act. 2

Despite what its title may suggest, the Act did not signify great change to the electoral system. Most working men still could not vote, with the franchise being restricted by property qualifications. The continuing discrimination against working class men within politics merely angered many and led to the formation of groups for universal manhood suffrage.

The Chartist Movement developed after the 1832 Reform Act failed to extend the vote beyond those owning property. Its members were typically from the working class and their 1838 People’s Charter was established by the London Working Men’s Association. The petition had six demands:

  1. Universal suffrage
  2. The secret ballot
  3. Annual Parliamentary elections
  4. No property qualifications
  5. Equal voting districts
  6. Payment of Members of Parliament 3

Chartist movement poster for Carlisle, 1839. Catalogue reference: HO 40/41

Despite numerous attempts to present the petition to the House of Commons, the Charter continued to be rejected, which only encouraged unrest and violent behaviour. In 1841, during the canvassing of candidates for the forthcoming election in Carlisle, a letter to Sir Charles Napier recounts that ‘Candidates were insulted and pelted, [and] on the day of nomination a riot took place’. 4

In the short term, the Chartists were unsuccessful as their radical actions did not immediately drive electoral reform. Their militant methods could be viewed as undermining their campaign, which is arguably similar to the actions of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). Nevertheless, militancy in both cases successfully publicised the movements and both groups eventually had success. The Chartist movement declined after their third and final petition was rejected in 1848, but new groups continued to fight for manhood suffrage.

Notice for The Reform League, 1867. Catalogue reference: HO 45/7854

Various other groups were established, including the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Association in 1848 and the National Reform Union in 1864, but these were short-lived and not as prominent as the Chartists. However, one group that made a big impact on political reform was the Reform League, which was founded in 1865. Ex-Chartists joined the League along with urban artisans. It also welcomed ‘other Reform Associations… and other organised bodies of Working Men’ to its demonstrations outside Parliament, such as in February 1867. 5 Yet, it is clear the Reform League were not as dedicated to universal male suffrage as the Chartists. The League dissolved within two years after the Second Reform Act of 1867, evidently satisfied by the increase in enfranchisement. Although, the League had achieved more than the Chartists, its members were clearly not as concerned with universal male suffrage.

The influence of suffrage groups, including the Chartists and the Reform League, encouraged the Second Reform Act of 1867. However, Parliament remained resistant to universal manhood suffrage and the Act, like its predecessor, included property qualifications as a means to control the electorate. The Act partly enfranchised the urban male working-class, granting the vote to those who owned houses in boroughs or lodgers who paid rent of £10 a year or more. while this doubled the electorate in England and Wales from one to two million men, universal manhood suffrage remained a distant idea. Even after the Third Reform Act in 1884, there was still a reluctance to provide all men the right to vote. It only partly overturned the previous Act by establishing a uniform franchise throughout the country. Moreover, it extended the same voting qualifications that existed in towns to those in the countryside. Yet, these attempts to extend the electorate were futile at ensuring universal manhood suffrage. However, with the rise of women’s suffrage, the fight for male suffrage was refuelled and presented a new angle for battling the resistance of Parliament.

It appears that as women’s suffrage groups became more prominent, there were fewer suffrage groups that specifically focused on male suffrage. It is likely that some men began to support women’s suffrage groups as they viewed it as a route towards universal manhood suffrage. The Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage was founded in 1907 by a group of largely middle class, left wing radicals. Henry Brailsford, the founder of the group, had been encouraged to actively participate in the suffrage campaign by his wife, Jane Esdon Brailsford – a militant suffragette. Men were increasingly interested in the suffrage movement and wanted to support votes for women, as it would inevitably ensure votes for all men.

While most suffrage societies allowed male members, the WSPU did not. Consequentially, the Men’s Political Union (MPU) was formed in 1910 as a militant male counterpart to the WSPU. Members of the group participated in similar radical actions to their female equivalent, such as Hugh Arthur Franklin who attempted to whip Winston Churchill, the home secretary at the time, at the ‘black Friday’ suffrage demonstration on 18 November 1910.

Men’s Political Union for Women’s Enfranchisement membership card which details the union’s aims and the methods they used to support votes for women. Catalogue reference: CRIM 1/149/3

Gender did not dictate the actions of the militant suffrage supporters and in prison Franklin went on hunger strike and was supposedly force fed 100 times. However, unlike the WSPU, the MPU remained active throughout the First World War and eventually federated with the East London Federation of Suffragettes to create the Worker’s Suffrage Federation. Although we cannot assert one definitive reason for why the Representation of the People Act was granted in 1918, the efforts of the suffrage groups played an important role in pushing for this next step in electoral progress.

A man shall be entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector for a constituency… if he is of full age and not subject to any legal incapacity. 6

The 1918 Representation of the People Act symbolised the end of the long and weary path for universal male suffrage. Manhood suffrage may have been removed as the focus for electoral progress as women’s suffrage became more prominent, but it always remained an issue for the electoral system. Although the Chartist Movement had been unsuccessful, by the time of the Fourth Reform Act, nearly all their aims had been achieved, except for annual parliamentary elections. The period between the first and the fourth Acts witnessed minor victories for male suffrage, but it was the final reform and the introduction of women to the electorate that won all men the right to vote.

Cover of the Representation of the People Act 1918. Catalogue reference: C 65/6385

The Citizens project is led by Royal Holloway, University of London, and charts the history of liberty, protest and reform from Magna Carta to the Suffragettes and beyond.


Before the shooting

Portillo, 35, testified in the trial against Brailsford that Shaver cried for his life before Brailsford shot him.

Portillo and Luis Nuñez were in Mesa on a work-related trip that day from New Mexico and were in the same hotel as Shaver, where he was also staying on a work trip from Texas as a pest-control worker.

On the night of the shooting, Portillo and Nuñez joined Shaver in his room.

Police responded to the hotel after a couple in the facility's hot tub reported seeing someone pointing a rifle outside of Shaver's fifth-floor window.

At that moment, Shaver had been showing Portillo and Nuñez his pellet gun that he used for work to kill vermin. Portillo testified that as Nuñez and Shaver were looking through the rifle's scope, the pellet gun was pointed toward the window.

By the time police responded, Nuñez had left the hotel, and Portillo was still in Shaver's room.


Thomas Berry Horsfall

Born in Liverpool, the son of former Mayor of Liverpool, Charles Horsfall (1776-1846) and Dorothy Hall Berry (1784-1846).

‘Like his father, he stood in the front rank amongst the merchant princes of Liverpool.’

(1) Jane Anne Marsh (?-1841) m. Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, 30 May 1834-1 February 1841 (2) Mary Cox (1817-1862), m. Brailsford, Derbyshire, 9 March 1847-1862 (3) Sophia Leeke (1830-1867) m. Belper, Derbyshire, 12 November 1863-1867 (4) Lucy Martha Nolan (1846-1920) m. London, 1 December 1870. Children (16 in all): With (1) Elizabeth Dorothy Horsfall (1835-), Charles Horsfall (1836-), Matilda Jane Horsfall (1837-), Thomas Marsh Horsfall (1838-1921), Louisa Horsfall (1840-), Robert Horsfall (1841-). With (2) Mary Cox (1848-), Charles (1849-), Annie (1851-), Jessie (1854-). With (3) William E. Horsfall (1866- ), Henry Leeke Horsfall (1867- ), Alexander S. Horsfall (1867- ). With (4) Lucy Beatrice Nolan Horsfall (1872-1943), Annie Gwendoline Nolan Horsfall (1873-), Gertrude B. Nolan Horsfall (1876-)

In the 1851 Census Thomas and Mary were living with her family in Brailsford: her mother (Elizabeth Cox), sister, brother, relation of Horsfall (Matilda Jane, aged 13 - visitor), their 2 children (Mary, aged 3, Charles, aged 1), 4 servants and a visiting servant with Matilda). William Cox (son of Eliz.) described as a landowner. In later years owned and resided at Bellamour Hall, Colton, Staffordshire. [Recorded there in 1861 Census along with Mary, his wife (b. Brailsford, Derbys., c. 1817), and 3 servants (a footman, nurse and kitchen maid) but no children. Horsfall described as 'MP, Magistrate and Merchant'.

Listed in the Liverpool Poll Book 1832 as Merchant, Netherfield Road, North Liverpool, S & D, BGS / FMN. Buried in St. Mary's Church, Colton, Staffordshire.

'During his lifetime Horsfall made considerable additions to the [Bellamour] estate and improved its general appearance. In the village he was esteemed for the interest he took in its inhabitants. The village schools were erected at his expense and were endowed by him. The cemetery adjoining, known as the Closed Burial Ground, was presented by him to the village as a free gift and he also took a very active part in the erection of the District Hospital in Rugeley. Horsfall also built the Reading Room in the village. Bellamour hall was demolished in the 1920's.'

In 1848 the first President of the Liverpool Architectural & Archaeological Society.

Elected the first President of the Chamber of Commerce and Mayor of the Borough he was also a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the counties of Lancashire and Stafford.

Elected as MP for Derby, 1852 but unseated on petition MP for Liverpool 1853-1868.

As MP for Liverpool ‘His political opinions were based upon the soundest Constitutional principles, and he will long be remembered for his strong common-sense Conservatism in the House of Commons. He was a good and true Churchman, and in concert with his brothers built four of the finest churches in Liverpool, to whose charitable institutions he was also a munificent patron.’

He was a member of the Royal Commission on Railways established in 1865 (reporting in 1867) to examine the charges for transporting people and goods and to investigate a more economical and efficient system of interchange between the various railways.


Contenido

Brailsford appears in the Domesday Book as being in the tenancy of Elfin [1] (possibly an Anglo-Norman rendering of the Saxon Aelfwine) who also held the nearby manors of Bupton, Osmaston and Thurvaston from the tenant-in-chief, Henry de Ferrers. The Domesday survey records the following for Brailsford:

Elfin, through his son, Nicholas de Brailsford, is the ancestor of the Brailsford family, who are still numerous in the county and elsewhere today.

From Pigot and Co's Commercial Directory for Derbyshire, 1835:

The parish (which has no dependent township) contained 724 inhabitants in 1821 and 780 in 1831.


Catalogue description Records of the Shirley family, Earls Ferrers of Staunton Harold, Leicestershire.

Three separate deposits by Earl Ferrers are amalgamated under one accession number, 26D53. They form the main Ferrers accumulation, but should be consulted with a subsidiary collection, 25D60 which comprises Ferrers legal and estate papers, deposited by Messrs. Crane & Walton, solicitors, Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

A further item, 6D61, is the account book kept by the Trustees of the Ferrers estates during the minority of Sir Seymour Shirley, 1657-1668, which contains notes of expenditure relating to the finishing of Staunton Harold Church. This account book appears to be a duplicate of one in the deposit of Shirley family records from Ettington, Warks. (which includes records transferred from Staunton, c.1830.) now in Warwickshire County Record Office. Another deposit of Ferrers material, relating to their Staffordshire estates, is in the Staffordshire Record Office and William Salt Library (No. D.1702.).

Earl Ferrers retained three early 12th century deeds, and the letter of condolence from King Charles II to Lady Shirley, on the death of Sir Robert Shirley in 1657.

For further details of these and other related collections, see later in this introduction.

The Shirley family, which has held the manor of Nether Ettington in Warwickshire, in the male line since the Conquest, is one of the few that can authentically claim this distinction. They took their surname from another of their manors, Shirley in Derbyshire, which they held as early as the twelfth century, and at various times this branch of the family had extensive estates in the counties of Derby, Gloucester, Leicester, Northampton, Nottingham, Stafford, Warwick and Wiltshire. This accumulation includes documents relating to Shirley estates in all these counties, with the exception of records from Ettington and some from Staffordshire, held by the Warwickshire and Staffordshire Record Offices.

Marriage settlements and grants account for the presence of most of these documents the Shirley connection with Staunton Harold began in 1423, when Ralph Shirley married Margaret, the heiress of John de Staunton, whose family had held Staunton Harold since the 12th century. The Shirleys had earlier connections with Leicestershire however, because several of Ralph's ancestors had married heiresses, adding land at Dalby on the Wolds, and the manors of Ratcliffe on Soar, Barrow on Soar, Ragdale, Willowes, Ratcliffe on the Wreake, and Long Whatton to their Derbyshire and Warwickshire estates.

Similarly later marriages and the lands they brought with them account for the largest proportion of documents in this accumulation. The extensive series relating to the Astwell with Falcutt, and Wappenham area of Northamptonshire, is accounted for by the marriage, in 1556, of John Shirley of Staunton with Jane the daughter and heir of Thomas Lovett of Astwell. This marriage also added the Gloucestershire manor of Dorsington to the Shirley estates. In 1646, Sir Robert Shirley, great-grandson of John and Jane, succeeded to part of the estates of his uncle, the third Earl of Essex, including the Chartley estate in Staffs., which with Staunton Harold became the main estate of this branch of the Shirleys. Sir Robert Shirley's son, also Sir Robert, the first Earl Ferrers, married in 1671, Elizabeth Washington, daughter and heir of Sir Laurence Washington of Garsdon, Wiltshire. This marriage brought the manors of Garsdon and other lands in Wiltshire into the Shirley family.

For most of these marriages, the settlements survive, as well as large numbers of leases, manorial documents and legal papers relating to these estates. The accumulation also contains other legal papers relating to family financial disputes and Earl Ferrers' dispute with the North Staffs. Railway Company, but the main part of the legal papers from these disputes is in the Crane and Walton deposit (25D60).

The management of such large and widespread estates necessarily involved keeping a great many estate records and accounts. The more systematic book-keeping of the 18th and 19th centuries increased the quantity of this type of material and, as the areas of land involved were large, the estate records in the Ferrers MSS for this period are extensive. They include a series of surveys and valuations estate maps and plans a big series of accounts, including household and wages accounts and estate rentals. This series relates mainly to Staunton Harold and Chartley because, by the middle of the 18th century, only these two main estates were left to this branch of the Shirleys. On the death of Robert, first Earl Ferrers in 1717, the Ettington estate and the Wiltshire manor of Garsdon were inherited by two of the younger sons of his very large family. Washington, the fifth Earl, sold the Northamptonshire and Derbyshire estates in the middle of the 18th century, partly to pay for the extensive alterations to Staunton Harold Hall which he planned. In this accumulation is a volume of building accounts, dated 1762-8, for these alterations which amounted to a rebuilding of the Hall, and were not completed until after the death of the fifth earl in 1778 (No.2506.).

The situation of Staunton Harold, close to the Derbyshire border and within the area of the Leicestershire and South Derbyshire coalfield, inevitably led to the Ferrers family holding colliery and other industrial interests. As early as the 13th century iron workings at Staunton are mentioned in a tithe demand, and 17th, 18th and 19th century leases and accounts relate to the lime works and collieries at Staunton and Lount. From 1798-1810 the Hon. Washington Shirley, later eighth Earl Ferrers, who married a cousin of Viscount Dudley and Ward, was manager of Lord Dudley's collieries in the Dudley, Bilston and Tipton area of South Staffordshire, and a quantity of accounts, correspondence and other papers relating to the running of these collieries survive. The Ferrers family also owned salt workings at Shirleywich on the Chartley estate, and although this was obviously on a smaller scale than their colliery interests, the salt sales accounts among these records, prove it a steady source of income during the first half of the 18th century.

One of the most remarkable single items in this accumulation is the Great Pedigree of the Shirley family, not only because of its size and the excellence of its execution, but as a piece of genealogical research. It was compiled in 1632 by Sir Thomas Shirley who was a great friend of Sir William Dugdale, and takes this family of such exceptionally ancient descent, to pre-Conquest period. A slightly earlier Lesser Pedigree of the Devereux and Ferrers families, smaller, but still of impressive proportions, is also included.

MINOR FERRERS ESTATES, VARIOUS COUNTIES.

1 - 146 Estates of Shirley and connected families, in England and Ireland, 14th - 18th centuries, arranged topographically.

Arranged under county headings in alphabetical order of parishes the parishes listed are main subjects of each section, but other parishes are included.

147 - 185 Derbys., estates as a whole.

286 - 335 Various parishes, including: Ednaston, Hone, Hollington, Longford and others.

389 - 402 Various parishes, mainly Yeaveley.

403 - 427 Various parishes, including: Barrow-on-Soar, Burton Overy, Dunton Bassett, Loseby and Cold Newton, Quorndon, and others.

428 - 486 Ragdale Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake Sileby.

538 - 557 Various parishes, mainly Worthington and Newbold.

558 - 836 Astwell with Falcutt.

837 - 938 Various parishes, including: Helmdon, Silverstone, Strixton, Syresham, Towcester, and others.

1062 - 1075 Weedon and other parishes.

1076 - 1106 Amerton-in-Stowe, and other parishes.

1145 - 1164 Colwich Drointon Field.

1210 - 1279 Gayton Grindley in Stowe.

1280 - 1303 Various parishes, mainly Hixon, Milwich, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Shirleywich.

1304 - 1415 Various parishes, mainly Stowe and Lea Fields in Stowe.

1416 - 1432 Various parishes, including: Amesbury, Bulford, Chelford and

1561 - 1580 Various parishes, mainly Lea and Cleverton and Monkton

1581 - 1650 MSS concerned with the main Ferrers' estates as a whole several counties included, mainly: Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire.

1651 - 1848 Court rolls, etc., arranged topographically.

1651 - 1674 Brailsford, Derbys.

1675 - 1687 Chartley, Staffs. Duffield, Derbys. Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Leics. and various parishes, Lincs. and Notts.

1688 - 1764 Shirley, Derbys.

1791 - 1848 Staunton Harold, Leics., Strixton, Northants., Worthington and Newbold, Leics.

1849 - 1864 Various legal papers, mostly relating to disputes over Shirley lands, 13th - mid. 17th cent.

1865 - 1893 Papers connected with the Royalist activities of Sir Robert Shirley, 1648-1652.

1894 - 1916 Late 17th and 18th cent. legal papers, mostly family financial disputes, and separation of Earl and Countess Ferrers (1758).

1917 - 1943 19th cent. legal papers, including dispute with North Staffs. Railway Co., and Ferrers peerage claim.

1944 - 1979 Wills, probate inventories, etc., 1306-1859, relating to Shirley family. Also includes Inventory of goods of Sir Isaac Newton (April 1727).

SURVEYS TERRIERS VALUATIONS.

1980 - 2004 Mainly 18th and 19th cent. surveys and terriers of Ferrers estates in Derbys., Leics., and Staffs.

2005 - 2037 Accounts, work reports, letters etc., relating to lord Dudleys Staffs. collieries (Bilston, Brierley Hill, Parkhead, etc.) 1798 - 1820.

2038 - 2042 INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM (1517 - 1633)

2043 - 2045a HENRY SMITH'S CHARITY (1627-1641).

2045b - 2103 RECEIPTS, VOUCHERS & BILLS.

Various 14th - 19th cent., including bills for work at Tamworth Castle mills, 1703.

Misc. Ferrers family and business letters, mainly about financial affairs, 18th and 19th centuries.

2135 - 2192 MAPS & PLANS (All 18th or 19th cent).

2135 - 2152 Var. places on Chartley estate, building and estate plans also maps of farms at Ednaston, Derbys.

2153 - 2167 Maps of var. parts of Chartley estate, mainly Fradswell, Gayton, Grindley and Hixon. Also maps of Happisburgh area, Norfolk.

2168 & 2169 Detailed 18th cent. field plan of Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Leics.

2170 - 2173 Shirley, Derbys., and var. places on Chartley estate.

2174 - 2176 Staffs. and Uttoxeter Railway, 1861-2.

2177 - 2187 Staunton Harold and Worthington, Leics., Weston, Staffs.

2188 - 2192 Rivers, canals and railways in Leics. and Staffs.

2193 - 2325 Rentals, mainly of Derbys., Leics., and Staffs. estates, 1305-1916. (Mostly 18th and 19th centuries.)

(Dates do not usually indicate an unbroken series.)

2326 - 2353 General accounts - 14th and 15th cent. rents 17th and 18th cent. household and estate accounts 18th cent. industrial accounts.

2354 - 2407 Main estate accounts, 1842 - 1932. (Chartley and Staunton Harold.)

2408 - 2531 Subsidiary accounts, 1743-1919, mainly Chartley and Staunton Harold estates, including: Stewards' and Agent's accounts Farm and bailiff's accounts wages building timber and garden produce rates and taxes. Also includes some household and personal accounts Lount colliery and Shirleywich salt sales accounts.

2532 - 2573 Various 13th - 16th cent. MSS mainly appointments to var. offices marriage dispensations wardship of estates agreement with tomb makers (1585).

2574 - 2582 Papers concerned with Henry Salte's tenure of Shirley vicarage, 1592 - 1615.

2583 - 2679 Var. MSS, mainly 17th cent. and later. Includes: personalia, military commissions, bills, letters, etc. recipe books list of MSS belonging to Sir Isaac Newton (May 1727.) library catalogue of Staunton Harold (1834).

2680 - 2685 17th cent. Ferrers Bible Great and Lesser Pedigrees and grant of supporters. 18th cent. grant of Earldom and settlement of estates after execution of 4th Earl.

2686 Bundle of letters release of property at Ednaston, Derbys., 1840-1844.

Catalogues of the following additional deposits of Shirley family records may also be found in A2A:-

25D60 Records received from family's solicitors, including legal papers re-court cases and sale of Chartley estate, and other estate records 1726-1923

22D64 Family letters 1803-1854

23D66 Records re-property in Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire 1311-c.1641

15D72 Cartulary of Sir George Shirley of Astwell, Northants. (c.1120-1617)

DE2638 Estate records, correspondence and personal papers c.1105-1961

Other Shirley family records deposited in the Record Office for Leicestershire, Leicester & Rutland:-

6D61 Staunton Harold estate and church accounts (under trustees) c.1656-1668

4D68 Rental of estate of Washington, Earl ferrers at Ettington, Whatcote and Oxhill, Warwicks.

5D69 Account book of John Johnson, Staunton Harold Steward 1724-1755

DE170 Fisher Mss containing deeds to property of the Staunton and Shirley families in Leicestershire, Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire 13th c.-1688

DE1452/1 Court rolls and minutes of court for Shirley family manors, including Ragdale, Willows and Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreake, Leics. 1351-1560

For further details of these and associated collections held by other repositories see:

Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts Guides to Sources for British History No.11. Principal family and Estate Collections: Family Names L-W (1999).

See also: Heather E. Broughton Family and Estate Records in the Leicestershire Record Office (1991)

Shirley family, Earls Ferrers of Staunton Harold, Leicestershire

Transcripts and extracts from many of the documents listed in this schedule, are to be found in:

Nichols, J. The History and Antiquities of the County of Leicester. Vol.3. pp 715-719. (pub. 1804.)


Ver el vídeo: Jane Brailsford


Comentarios:

  1. Alonzo

    Sí, lo has dicho correctamente

  2. Jaylend

    Pido disculpas, pero creo que estás equivocado. Puedo probarlo. Escríbeme en PM, discutiremos.

  3. Nickolai

    Permites el error. Escríbeme en PM, hablaremos.



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